Sufferings which are not personal punishments come from God (a) for the exercise of virtue and greater merit (Tob. XII, 13); (b) to keep us from sinning (Lk. XXIII, 31); (c) to give an example of virtue and patience to others (Tob. II, 12); (d) to punish the sins of another, as when parents are punished in their children; (e) so that God may show that there is another life; (f) so that the glory or grace of God may shine out the more brightly (Jn IX, 3)  (Benedict Merkelbach, Summa Theologiae Moralis, vol I, 529 n.4)

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