Cardinal Allen describes the sinful compromises undertaken by English Catholics fearing the persecution of the Elizabethan government:

“…even many priests, after saying Mass in secret, publicly on the very same day, conducted the heretical services, thus in a most wicked way sharing the chalice of the Lord with the chalice of the devil. They did this because they falsely thought it was sufficient if they held to their faith by inward assent while obeying the government in outward actions.”

– T. F. Knox, Letters and Memorials of Cardinal Allen, 56.